A Deferred Dream Action

When the Dream Act was being watered-down, stalled, heavily-militarized, rejected, watered-down some more, and rejected again, this heavily affected many of my clients, students at a community college. These were young adults who came here as children, had lived highly respectable lives, went to college and tried to do the right thing, according to the unrealistic, hubristic standards of the American Dream. Many of them—born in but coming from Latin American but sometimes Middle Eastern, South Asian, and the African regions—were relieved when then-President Obama announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

The DACA program was a temporary stop-gap measure for young immigrants (Generation 1.5, and under 32 years of age, as of 2012) who come here as children, graduated from high school, know English, and have completely spotless records that allowed them to register every two years for the chance to obtain an official state identification. These are students who traversed the traps of a country and society that highly problematize and criminalize them. They are raised in an environment of fear and secrecy, not necessarily of their own communities or families (though like any other demographic, that can be the case as well) but of being ripped from their families, communities, homes, and often the only country they know.

This existential fear is not a result of their innate badness or goodness or anything else. For immigration is a necessary lifeblood to both industry and to global capitalism. Yes, often immigrants are used as pawns to drive down the cost of labor, but that is to say that capitalists will not pay living wages and will use others to wedge in those “costs” – and further drive their theft – any way they can. At first it was indentured servanthood, then chattel slavery, then Jim Crow, then the Bracero program. Initially, the program was to bring in seasonal laborers (aka, guest workers) across the border, largely for agricultural work. When the Braceros began to settle permanently, have families, and organize their labor, then the corporations and their puppet state began striking back. In 1954, Eisenhower’s Immigration and Naturalization Services began the “Wetback Program” to round up immigrant workers who were not covered under the Bracero Program. Ten years later, when Mexican immigrants made up a full 15% of the farmhand labor force, the program ended as unions, churches, and competing demanded that both nationalized and guest workers’ wages be raised.

Immigrant rights were raised when Cesar Chavez’s joined together with Filipino migrant workers to protest grape growers’ lowering wages on the Filipino’s to undercut Mexican wages. The groups recognized that they were being pit against each other and worked together to demand fair wages from the landowners. And it worked. For fifteen years, while their wages were never at-par with the median for non-farmhands, they rose considerably. Seasonal farm laborers enjoyed a massive uptick in material conditions as a result of cross-sector solidarity and heavy organizing.

I point this out not simply as a history lesson from merely one group of workers and only a couple of immigrant groups, though the past informs the present and the future. But in light of the fact that the political parties will only serve capitalism and in doing so will seek out to destroy communities that do not meet their needs or have outserved their purpose—this includes immigrant families. Because they seek cheap labor that they can easily exploit we find this alternation between temporary, compromised rights under Democrats and permanent raids under the openly xenophobic and nativist Republicans (especially under Trump).

While DACA gave many young adults a fresh hope and materially benefited them with access to jobs, forms of valid ID, and more affordable college,[1] it only accounts for 10% of the most ‘exceptional’ immigrants (those who arrived by the age of 16, are younger than 32, have graduated high school and do not have a criminal record) and thus places all immigrants in an impossible situation of having to be super role models while under intense scrutiny in a highly criminalized climate in order to be accepted by the wider society, or to live and operate largely underground.

Additionally, the temporary fix that is DACA relied upon the idea that Obama would be replaced with someone of a like mind. The fact that this like-minded person was 1) facing off against an explicitly racist nativist and 2) herself having just repeated an astoundingly horrid nativist sentiment regarding refugee children should have alerted us all to the fact that the work, even the work for that dream-like 10%, was not complete, would not be near complete. The fact that now Donald Trump, Steve Miller, and all the fascists at ICE (and everyone who works at ICE is a fascist; don’t @ me!) have access to all this biometric information recipients is terrifying and incredibly irresponsible on the part of Obama. Further, that even the most-left-leaning national politician, Bernie Sanders, repeated nativist rhetoric about immigrants as themselves actors in lowering wages means that we are going to have to look beyond an electoral strategy.

We are left with the brazen fact that our politicians are failing us, that we must rely on each other. That capitalists only care about profit margins means that whatever actions they are willing to take for immigrant rights will be just enough to maintain their machines and not disrupt them. It is up to us, workers, to band together to make sure that everyone, regardless of race, gender, where they were born, or immigration status, is treated fairly and justly, has enough to eat, adequate income, a decent place to live, freedom from oppression and constant surveillance, and sufficient security. This cannot happen if we allow Nativism, White Supremacy, and Patriarchy—the tools of capitalism—to organize us. It cannot happen if we are mobilized through Islamophobia[2] or the impetus of a police state.

Together, fighting for and with the marginalized amongst us, on their terms, we have nothing to lose but our chains.

——-

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[1] Including many of my student clients, some of whom came out of hiding to go back to school

[2] http://www.rawstory.com/2017/09/bank-has-entire-arab-american-family-arrested-after-father-tries-to-deposit-large-check-from-home-sale/

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Immigration Reform and Organized Chaos

I’m not so excited about the passing of the immigration reform bill in the Senate. I should be, I guess. I’ve been praying and pushing for it for a while. It’s not, of course, because I’ve gone over to Ted Cruz or Louise Gohmert. Those guys think we need to build a three-mile deep moat with electric eels and dragons between the US and Mexico – and they’ve got a suspicious eye on Puerto Rico, too.

No, my feelings of doubt are more along the lines that I don’t trust this Congress. They’ve made too many concessions to the xeno-aggressors and bigots and they’re too far in the pocket of the Military Industrial Complex and Big Business, particularly Big Agra.

Migrant Worker and Cucumbers, Blackwater, VA

Big Agra is particularly frustrating. They need a steady stream of migrant workers, but they need to control that stream – it’s how they keep prices down. Otherwise, the peasants would revolt and demand unions and Si Se Puede! would break out in farms, malls, and radios all across America and Con Agra wouldn’t be able to eat their cake and look at it too. Big Agra does this by controlling who can and who does stay in the US in an organized chaotic way. In fact, that’s the whole game of Big Agra: controlled chaos. Despite what Homeland Security and ICE are saying, it’s not the criminals and the dangerous who are being deported, it’s the random immigrant, even the ones here with proper papers. This allows immigrants to live in constant fear of angering #BossCulture or sticking out and being removed from their families and homes.

So, no unions. No organizing. No questioning authority. That’s the goal.

Additionally, the fact that the new bill pushes for even further militarization of the border doesn’t sit well with me, of course. And not just ‘cuz MOAR MILITARY. That’s always troubling, of course. But the fact that migrants pass through the borders risking life and limb and often die of dehydration, hunger, cold, heat on the way – doesn’t that say something to us? There is a drastic need to come to the US for greener pastures (even if the portion they are allowed in is steeped in cow dung and trampled underfoot by xeno-aggressors, law-makers, police, and corrupt bosses). Not because the US is naturally better than all the other countries to the south of us. Not because we worked so hard to make our country awesome and Mexicans and El Salvadorans are lazy.

No, the problems of these countries are direct and indirect results of colonialism, imperialism, and consumerism of the West and particularly of the United States. That whole Monroe Doctrine and CIA interventions and the funding of guerillas, paramilitary, and despots? That’s us keeping organized chaos over the entire Western Hemisphere while maintaining a cheap supply of drugs (and then jailing primarily Black and poor Americans for it while middle class, wealthy and White Americans each have an equal share of the usage and spreading of illicit drugs) crops, and crop-workers.

We flood the valleys, and we build a giant wall not just to keep the water contained, but to keep the villagers in it too? We shoot the escapees. And we don’t see how this is problematic?

Entertaining Angels

[During the lost decade of the 1980s], more than 140,000 died in Guatemala, 70,000 in El Salvador, 60,000 in Nicaragua–unimaginable devastation for a region that has fewer inhabitants than the state of Texas.
– Juan Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire

You must not oppress foreigners. You know what it’s like to be a foreigner, for you yourselves were once foreigners in the land of Egypt.
– Exodus 23:9

Do not forget to show hospitality to strangers, for by so doing some people have shown hospitality to angels without knowing it.
– Hebrews 13:2

A Sad Story in Derbyshire - Penelope Asleep Inside the Church in Ashbourne

Some People Really Don’t Like Jesus

This map represents some of the worst of us.

Each of the red dots in this picture represents a dead body found in Arizona. The eighty-eight bodies belong to migrants trying to cross the desert from October of last year to April. The region outlined in red is the Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation. Migrants tried to trek across this land out of desperation, trying to find some work that would do them well. Trying to find adequate wages to subsist them and their families. Some do; enough to give a faint bit of hope to people across the border who’s own jobs have been destroyed by the very American economic policies that keep many of us well-fed and in comfort.

The migrants cross this area because, being a reservation, there are not as many authority figures to incarcerate and then deport them back. But they get thirsty. Real thirsty.

And so devoted volunteers go out in trucks and leave water filling depots for the migrants. It’s an act of selfless mercy and sacrifice. It’s an act that Christians would (or should) recognize as the great commandment – Love your neighbor as yourself. And migrants are our neighbors, as sure as Samaritans were neighbors of faithful Jews. And thirsty migrants, to Christ-followers, represent Jesus.

“I was thirsty and you gave me drink.”

But some people don’t like Jesus, apparently. They vandalize and destroy the water stations.

Some die from violence, shot by Border Patrol agents, vigilantes or thieves. Others are killed in accidents: stumbling in rugged terrain, falling over the wall,  or struck by vehicles.  Many others perish of dehydration and exposure – conditions made worse by the recent sabotage of water stations set out by Border Angeles and other humanitarian groups.

Some people really don’t like Jesus.

Did You See That?

My fiend Robin shares some wonderful stuff on my FB wall. She really seems to understand that a few of us twenty-first century (sl)activists try to grapple with a wide variety of issues, but those issues are generally framed by a more specific issue. The framing helps to keep us anchored and connected. We can understand multitudes of issues from pinpointing how this one issue affects so many people.

For Robin, that specific issue is immigration (and homelessness, as she shared with me this morning). To that end, she has helped to launch Starving for Justice! Human Rights for Immigrants in the USA – a community of folks who gather on Facebook to fast weekly to meditate, pray, protest, and raise awareness of unjust practices and policies toward migrants in the US. Although the plight of papered and undocumented migrants (and specifically Latinos who are targeted) is a grave concern of mine, I first became alarmed by their treatment while considering racism and white priviledge in the States. That is my frame.

The following video is one that she shared with me and I thought the story therein reflects very well why a white, male, Evangelical heterosexual is CONSTANTLY blowing the horn for black, Muslims, homosexual, Mexican, working class, feminist, atheist women, men, and children. The subject of this video is a bi-racial woman who passes for white, but uses her white privilege (something she recognizes early on because she grew up in a community and in families that address racial concerns) to speak up against an obvious injustice. Because this “white” lady speaks up, other white ladies also acknowledge the injustice as well.

And that, I believe, is what it takes. A few voices to speak with – not for – the ignored and marginalized.

s

Tea Partyin’, Partyin’, Something…

Social Media & Memesphoto © 2011 Gwyneth Anne Bronwynne Jones | more info (via: Wylio)
I think we should just get one thing straight: the part of the universe that we are not parts of are not necessarily monoliths. The “Black Community” is not of one voice about anything, let alone everything. I can’t tell you how many of my more-conservative friends I’ve had to correct about us progressives (that, for example, we don’t necessarily believe in bigger government or more taxes), and how they’ve shown me that not all conservatives hate or blame immigrants (documented or not), the poor, homosexuals, etc.

I’m almost daily trying to convince fellow progressives to explore the option of voting third party, and they’re wondering why some of us are practically handing the keys to the H-bomb button to Sarah Palin.

Today’s lesson is brought to us by the letter T. As in “Tea Parties.” Notice the deliberation with which I painfully point out the plurality here*. Not, “Tea PartY”, but the plural version. Because it’s not one single movement, or ideology, or people group. Just as Evangelicals shouldn’t be known simply as followers of James Dobson, Jim Wallis, or (Lord, please no!) Franklin Graham, nor does every Tea Partier belong to the racist and arrogant class of the Mark Williamses or the arrogant and racist class of the Andrew Breitbarts or the pro-bullying, anti-gay, blame-deflecting class of Rich Swier. None of which, ironically, have any class. Or morals.

These butt-hats don’t represent all of the Tea Party. Just parts of it (apparently, the parts that call itself Tea Party Nation and the Tea Party Express). Tea Partiers don’t agree on racism, bullying, or theocracy, or even owning guns. They ostensibly say that taxes are too high and that government spending is out-of-control. Among this crowd are some black and Latino conservatives.

We may not agree with them much of what they espouse – and even if I did, I would completely distance myself from the likes of Bachmann, Breitbart, Palin, and Swier, that guy with the sign of President Obama in an “African witchdoctor” get-up, or that California douchebag who distributed emails of watermelon outside the White House lawn – but we can find points of interest and agreement with most of those on “the other side”.

Conservatives, moderates, libertarians, progressives, liberals, anarchists, and lefties can agree on any number of issues – as long as we’re not all tied down to the definitions given us by the lazy media. The leadership of the Southern Baptist Convention and I may disagree about any number of matters, but when it comes to giving migrants a fair chance in this country, we’re on the same page. Many L&O types are as well, including this lovely conservative Republican mayor of a small town in Georgia, Paul Bridges.

Many TP’ers are against wars, as are many of the conservative and liberal libertarians and anarchists. That is an area that progressives (and like-minded liberals and moderates, etc.) can join together and will NEED to join together in order to challenge the Military-Industrial Complex that has taken control of both parties in the United States.

My friends, I ask only of you what Crosby, Stills, Nash and sometimes Young asked:


We can change the world!

———————————–
*Bad, pseudo-intellectual self joke…

Mules to my right, Jackasses to my left.

During a Republican gubernatorial nominee debate in Arizona, incumbent (but not elected) governor and full-time liability Jan Brewer opened up her mouth, allowing more unfounded biases to pour out. She declared, “They’re coming here, and they’re bringing drugs. And they’re doing drop houses, and they’re extorting people and they’re terrorizing the families.”

Because the veracity of her reports needed to be further justified while simultaneously adopted by the gullible and/or racists, she did us all the pleasure of expounding the other day.

Well, we all know* that the majority of the people that are coming to Arizona and trespassing are now become drug mules. They’re coming across our borders in huge numbers. The drug cartels have taken control of the immigration. …

So they are criminals. They’re breaking the law when they are trespassing and they’re criminals when they pack the marijuana and the drugs on their backs…

I believe today and in the circumstances that we are facing, that the majority of the illegal trespassers that are coming in the state of Arizona are under the direction and control of organized drug cartels, and they are bringing drugs in…

There’s strong information to us that they come as illegal people wanting to come to work. Then they are accosted and they become subjects of the drug cartel.

1) Mules? Beasts of burden. Animals. Un-human. There’s a direct, Orwellian correlation between this type of language and the type of language used to justify chattel slavery and genocide. Those who argue against immigrants (“illegal” or not) continue in the fine tradition of de-humanizing their targets in order to lift themselves up (in Brewer’s case, it’s a political ploy, one that she shares with the Segregationists of the middle 20th Century).

2) Brewer denied that Mexicans and other Latin-Americans are coming through the Southern border to find work, to feed their families. It’s a furthering of her de-humanizing practices (and the de-humanization of non-Whites in a White Supremacy rule), and another attempt to de-familiarize. These are not people with real struggles and needs, people whose lives are on the precipice largely because of American intervention into their economy, according to this WS thinking.
3) She’s actually countering the claims of a fellow Arizona Republican. That’s a bit of hope badly needed in these highly politicized days.
4) In trying to once again to connect immigration to the drug trade (two things that need to be solved separately) Brewer once again shows her sympathydeep-seated racism. Latinos are only good for _______________(fill in the blank). For some people, apparently, they’re only good as boogie-men. But this misses another, broader point.
Q1) Why drug-smuggling? Why is that on the table at all in discussing Latinos?
Simplified A1) Because it’s a real problem in Mexico, especially near the borders. And if it’s a problem in Mexico, then, ergo, forsooth it must be a Mexican problem. And if it’s a Messican problem and thems is coming here, then it will also be an Amuriken problem. Unlesses we’s stop them.
Q2) Why is drug-smuggling an issue in the northern border regions of Mexico?
Simplified A2) Because Amerigringos can’t get enough of the sh*t. As long as we don’t have to change our way of life to get it. And we don’t plan on doing that anytime soon…

We’re causing the drug-smuggling problems, and yet we take no ownership in that.

4) In the name of Christian love, I propose that every time Jan Brewer comes out to speak/open up a shopping center/brey, we should greet her with a familiar, familial call of “HEE-HAW! HEE-HAW!” It would make her feel at home, among the jackasses.
*Sadly, no.

Forget solidarity, we need individualitism

By the time I get to Arizona, cont

All classes are canceled that:

  1. Promote the overthrow of the United States government.
  2. Promote resentment toward a race or class of people.
  3. Are designed primarily for pupils of a particular ethnic group.
  4. Advocate ethnic solidarity instead of the treatment of pupils as individuals.

Let’s address these point by point, eh?

Most people wouldn’t have a problem with the first point. It makes sense. I’m sure that there are all sorts of Pottery/Bomb-Building classes happening in middle schools throughout the state. They need to be abolished post-haste, before pimply twelve year-olds take down our elected officials with their pencils and flowers.

But the truth of the matter shines when this is connected to the state’s other recent laws, designed to move out the Latino population (whether citizens or “illegals”): A bad, short-sighted ploy by Republicans to ensure their supremacy. In the words of The Answer Sheet,

[State Superintendent of Public Education] Horne has wanted to limit [a Mexican-American studies program in Tucson] since he learned several years ago that Hispanic civil right activist Dolores Herta told Tucson high school students that “Republicans hate Latinos.”

This act, of course, dispels such silly rumors…

The second point gets into more clowdy territory, though. Particularly when dealing with modes of ethnic identity, to study the history and culture of one particular ethnic group could leave those not in that group feeling left out or even hurt by accusations. However, bad stuff happened. Winners got the spoils and tend to still receive the spoils as a result. Those same winners get to write the history in such a way where it seems inevitable that they would be the natural winners and that the losers, of course, would lose. Losers, otoh, don’t have a history, amirite? At least that’s what I was taught…

Resentment is in the eye of the beholder, of course. White supremacists (like those who drafted the “Papers Please” Law and see also this) are always going to feel resentful of other cultures, especially when these other cultures (whether they be Black, Jewish, Arabian, Eastern European, Latino, Latin American, East African) possess pride in their history, food, clothes, holidays, customs, etc. Which is why white supremacists have an abiding NEED to show up to Cinco de Mayo festivities as gangs with their US flag t-shirts.

The third point is fairly explicit, though. As is the fourth point. And the fifth if you count the fact that the state is also grading and forbidding teachers who have “strong accents.”

The point is: White Americanism is the de facto ethnic group. To argue that a history class tailors to one particular ethnic group is to miss the point: all study of history comes from a particular cultural viewpoint. All of it is tied into identity. There is no such thing as a purely individualized individual.

Pure make believe.

And there never was outside of romance novels and horrible fan fiction either*. No one person lives in a vacuum. We all have family, expectations, music, perceptions, learning procedures, foods, language, etc., etc. that come from others, that bleed through our pores whether or not we want to acknowledge it.

Kind of like xenophobia.

And if we were xenophobic, we’d have to wave goodbye to humanity, including this. And I’m not willing to settle for that.

*I know what you’re thinking. “Aren’t those two the same?” Short answer: no! Your treatise on a secret love affair between Princess Leia and a time-traveling Spock remains unpublished while Danielle Steel is, inexplicably, still selling through major distributors. Sucks, but such is reality.

Immigrants cause crime?

Blame Lou Dobbs. Or nativism. Or Dan Stein and his inexplicably mainstreamed hate-policy group, FAIR. Or the 24/7 news culture that somehow leaves us less informed and more afraid than ever before.

But these reports – shooting up everywhere, throwing impossible-to-verify data on the ground in retaliation against migrants – defy any and all logic whatsoever. Not just logic, but experience, and research to boot. I won’t spend all day trying to gut the lying numbers, since they do not add up to reality and any quick research will point out that Dobbs and his racist friends* can’t admit – they’re lying racists who use irrational fear to bring people on the fence to their side. Well, some people on some fences…
It says something fundamentally ugly, however, about American tribal culture that we can so easily believe such unfounded, irrational and perverted lies about our fellow humans simply because THEY (immigrants) are not US (Real Americans).
This is my observation living amongst many cultures: It’s not the migrant populations who tend towards violence.** Rather, it’s those populations who have tried and failed to assimilate to American cultural norms – those who have looked deep into the heart of domestic imperialism – those who have seen the hard work, toil, sweat, and dropped blood of their parents, aunts and uncles, grandparents and cousins go for naught, but in fact repaid in viciousness, exploitation, burned crosses and ambush parties. These – the second and third and further generational Americans – are those who tend to resort to violence. They’ve learned from the United States what it means to be ugly.

And sometimes, sadly, they give in to the hopelessness.
Rather than hurting our migrant neighbors by repeating, reposting, accepting, or – often worse – ignoring those who tend to link violent crime with immigrants, we need to offer them and their children a path to hope.***
After all, isn’t that what being an American is supposed to be all about?
*To counter the charges of xenophobia, Dobbs’ supporters point to the fact that he has a Latina wife. But then I could make an illustration about the different meanings of “love” using goats, but I think I’d rather not…

**Actually, undocumented immigrants tend to become the victims of these crimes rather than perpetrators because their victimizers know that they are in constant fear of deportation and that the police often have their hands tied by laws that, in effect, do not favor much of their population.

***In fact, we should also offer the Dobbses hope too, for as long as they continue to buy into the vicious lies, they continue to not only imprison the new Americans and darker-skinned people, but also themselves. One of us be chained, mofos, we ALL be chained.

A Modest Proposal for All Those Trying to Enter America

It appears that with every problem in these United States that we have, every time a resourceful citizen dreams up a possible and viable solution to a fundamental problem of the peoples (be it health care, economic prosperity, national safety, job retention, or problems in the bedroom with a member of the fairer sex), another road-block is thrown onto the streets. That roadblock is called “illegal immigrants.” They apparently are the reason that we cannot afford childcare, welfare, health care, nor, apparently, Bel Aire.

Now, I know the answer that you are thinking to that ultimate question. We should run over those roadblocks and their children. They aren’t even supposed to be there anyway. And that is a good answer, four years ago, when we could afford Expeditions and H2’s. But this is a new, ecologically-friendly Depression-lite era, and unless you have a chipper in front of your Prius, that thinking just will not do justice for this day. We need a bold and creative plan of action that will once and for all solve the problem of too many immigrants.

Now you will notice that I did not say, “the problem of the immigrants.” That wording is too broad. It does not tell you what it is that is wrong with immigrants. For surely not everything about immigrants (nor immigration) is amiss. Most reasonable men (and some of the more reasonable women folk) will agree that at least a small amount of new blood is good for the soil of our country. Who else will work crappy jobs for piss pay? The un-Americans, that’s who!

So, we do not need to completely plug the holes, but rather to control the flow of foreigners coming into our land, dating our sisters, and eating our children. I, fortunately for you, dear reader, have thought long and hard for many, many minutes about this thingymabobby.

It has struck me that the path to legal immigration and citizenship is wholly unlike the path that our forefathers took in founding this wonderful nation. George Washington never had to take a test that asked who George Washington is. No, the Washingtons worked the fingers of their slaves to the bones and threw tens of hundreds of thousands of voluntary military men into the range of fire for the right to be called a citizen of the United States of America (or, as it was called in the time, “America: F**k yeah!”). True heroes opened up the borders of what we would define as our God-given rightful land by heart-wrenchingly creating and then breaking peace treaty after peace treaty, raping, declaring war on, and/or enslaving brown-skinned people from

Our new visitors need to demonstrate that they have the same heart that our great forefathers did. It seems to me that very few, if any, of the recent migrants who have darkened our shores (be they via the Pacific, Atlantic, or Rio Grande Oceans) have raped, murdered, mangled or so much given a smallpox-infested blanket to an Indian. Obviously, there aren’t enough Indians around for large-scale genocide in these times (Oh, the old glory days…), but that will in fact open up the stakes, for they will understand that they are being hunted down and will go into hiding.

The practicalities would work out as thus: by lottery we will choose, say, 2,000 “undocumented” immigrants for short visa stays per month. Within that month, they are expected to unload, pay their respects to the great centers of our nation (the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell, Wasilla, Savannah plantations, etc.) and then commit random acts of genocide on the Indian population.

However, if the foreigner has the ability to import a boat load of free laborers upon his or her arrival, that will also prove his or her character. The new arrival will not need to undergo the month-long process, but will be granted immediate citizenship upon arrival and a recitation of The Pledge of Allegiance (preferably with bombs bursting in air in the background). I mean the new arrival who owns the boat and the laborers, not the laborers themselves. They will each represent 2/3’s of a person.

One perceived side-effect for this ultimate solution would be that there will be fewer casinos. Not to worry, since the gaming centers run on reservations may be staffed by Natives, but are not owned by Natives. Although, for nostalgia’s sake, I’m sure you will be greeted by a tall, dark and handsome man wearing loincloth and carrying a tomahawk and peace pipe — just like the Iroquios, Mohawk, or Fighting Illini.

That is, if you are a citizen.